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A bilingual concordance is a concordance based on aligned parallel text. Unlike a traditional concordance, the indexed word does not have to appear in the verse. The most well known topical concordance is Nave's Topical Bible. In 1448 Rabbi Mordecai Nathan completed a concordance to the Hebrew Bible. Then followed the notorious Cruden's Concordance and Strong's Concordance. Because of the time and difficulty and expense involved in creating a concordance in the pre-computer era, only works of special importance, such as the Bible, Qur'an or the works of Shakespeare, had concordances prepared for them. Concordances are frequently used as a tool in linguistics that can be used for the study of a text, such as: comparing different usages of the same word, analysing keywords, analysing word frequencies and etc.
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Summary of 2nd article:
Concordance programs are basic tools for the corpus linguist. Since most corpora are incredibly large, it is a fruitless enterprise to search a corpus without the help of a computer. Concordance programs turn the electronic texts into databases which can be searched. Usually word queries are always possible, but most programs also offer the possibility of searching for word combinations within a specified range of words and of looking up parts of words (substrings, in particular affixes, for example). If the program is a bit more sophisticated, it might also provide its user with lists of collocates or frequency lists. Some examples of well-known concordance programs are WordCruncher, TACT (Text Analysis Computing Tools), and etc.